By Just Peeing, You can Predict your Risk Prostate Cancer.

On June 29, 2019.

By Sola Ogundipe
It may soon be possible to predict your risk of aggressive prostate cancer if you simply pee and submit the sample of your urine for a special test.
This is possible thanks to a new experimental urine test which shows whether a man would need treatment and when he would for prostate cancer.
This new test is the result of efforts by researchers at the University of East Anglia and the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital (NNUH) who collaborated to develop a urine test to diagnose aggressive prostate cancer and predict whether patients will require treatment up to five years earlier than standard clinical methods require.
The experimental new test called ‘PUR’ (Prostate Urine Risk) also identifies men who are up to eight times less likely to need treatment within five years of diagnosis.
The test could help large numbers of men avoid an unnecessary initial biopsy and repeated invasive follow-ups for ‘low risk’ patients on active surveillance.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second most common tumour diagnosed worldwide.
The prostate is part of the male reproductive system and makes some of the fluid that nourishes and protects sperm cells in the semen.
Prostate cancer is to men what breast cancer or cervical cancer is to women. It has the potential to grow and spread quickly, but for most men, it is a relatively slow growing disease.
About 20,000 men die of prostate cancer every year in Nigeria. One new case occurs every 3.3 minutes and a man dies from prostate cancer every 20 minutes.
On daily basis, at least 14 men die in the country and 1 in 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.
A black man is 70 percent more likely to develop prostate cancer than a Caucasian man, and is nearly 2.3 times more likely to die from the disease.
The latest research entitled “A Four Group Urine Risk Classifier for Predicting Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient” is published in the journal BJU International.
The research team was led by Prof Colin Cooper, Dr Daniel Brewer and Dr Jeremy Clark, all from UEA’s Norwich Medical School, with the support and expertise of Rob Mills, Marcel Hanna and Prof Richard Ball at the NNUH.
They developed the Prostate Urine Risk (PUR) test using machine learning to look at gene expression in urine from samples collected from 537 men.
By examining the cell-free expression of 167 genes in urine samples, the team found a mathematical combination of 35 different genes that could be used to produce the PUR risk signatures.
Previous urine biomarker tests have been designed specifically for single purposes such as the detection of prostate cancer on re-biopsy (PCA3 test). But this new test uses four PUR signatures to provide a simultaneous assessment of non-cancerous tissue and risk groups (low, intermediate and high-risk) to show how aggressive the cancer is.

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Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men. It usually develops slowly and the majority of cancers will not require treatment in a man’s lifetime. However, doctors struggle to predict which tumours will become aggressive, making it hard to decide on treatment for many men.
Commonly used tests for prostate cancer include blood tests, a physical examination known as a digital rectal examination (DRE), an MRI scan or a biopsy.
“Prostate cancer is more commonly a disease men die with rather than from. Unfortunately, we currently lack the ability to tell which men diagnosed with prostate cancer will need radical treatment and which men will not,” said Lead author Shea Connell from UEA’s Norwich Medical School.
“Current practice assesses a patient’s disease using a PSA blood test, prostate biopsy and MRI. But up to 75 per cent of men with a raised PSA level are negative for prostate cancer on biopsy. Meanwhile 15 per cent of patients who do not have a raised PSA are found to have prostate cancer – with a further 15 per cent of these cancers being aggressive.
“A policy of ‘active surveillance’ has been developed as a way to combat this uncertainty, but it requires invasive follow-ups and constant reminders that a patient has a cancer with an uncertain natural history.
“This results in up to 50 per cent of men on active surveillance self-electing for treatment – whether they need it or not.
“This research shows that our urine test could be used to not only diagnose prostate cancer without the need for an invasive needle biopsy but to identify a patient’s level of risk. This means that we could predict whether or not prostate cancer patients already on active surveillance would require treatment.

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Robert Mills, Consultant Surgeon in Urology at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, said: “Currently diagnostic tests for prostate cancer are too non-specific to differentiate those without prostate cancer, those with low risk disease that is unlikely to be of clinical significance and those with disease that should be treated. This test has the potential to improve clinical decision making by helping to differentiate these three groups.”
Dr Mark Buzza, global director of biomedical research programs at the Movember Foundation, which funded the study, said: “The PUR test has enormous potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. We are delighted to have supported this important work under our Global Action Plan (GAP1) Biomarker project which fosters collaboration between researchers across the globe. Bringing researchers together to collaborate rather than compete for funding allows research findings to be fast-tracked for the benefit of men.”

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