Published September 3, 2019
Sigmund Freud remains one of the most creative , dramatic and significant contributors to the field of modern psychiatry , especially through his famous theory of psychoanalysis in explaining varied forms of abnormal behavior.
Of particular relevance to this discourse is the dual – drive theory in relation to human sexuality. He described sexual drive as the ultimate premise of biological motivation for human behavior, just as instincts serve a similar purpose for animals . Under the dominance of the sexual drive and guided by the primary process thinking ; the libido exerts an ongoing pressure towards gratification operating in accordance with the pleasure principle .
The aggressive or ‘ death ’ drive, which is profoundly self – destructive is responsible for the development of depression and suicide and runs counter to the pleasure principle of the libido . A basic inference from this theory is that the sexual drive is the energy of life and when frustrated could result in unconscious self- destructive psychological strategies that may end up in depression and suicide .
This explains the central role that mental health experts play in sexual dysfunction. Men and women have always been curious about their sexual life; its inherent mysteries , drives , intentions , oddities and common sexual problems . Treatment rituals , folk remedies, advice , and sex manuals have been discovered among the writings of the ancient Greek physicians, Talmudic scholars , and Chinese and Hindu practitioners.
Even today , the public demonstrates an insatiable curiosity about sexual life, especially how to enhance , improve , restore or cure sexual problems .it has been the focus of every monthly women ’ s magazine , television and radio programs, books and videos.
Biographers have observed that most of our great leaders and inventors have been peculiarly endowed with enormous libidinal energy , creatively harnessed and plugged into their particular creative outlets rather than wasteful dissipation in consonance with the concept of sexual transmutation . For the love of a woman, a man can perform prodigiously animated by the energy of the libido .
I think it is in agreement with Freud ’ s theory of libido that guided our culture to define manhood , among other qualities , in the context of sexual agility and prowess . The African society in its essentially patriarchal and sexual agility is considered a resource for man to take full control of his emotional and psychological territory , just as the women are expected to derive security in the enjoyment of this facility.
However, changes in the dynamics of the modern marriage with the attendant psychological challenges may explain an apparent increase in the incidence of sexual dysfunction among men, especially erectile dysfunction and their patronage of local cultural remedies no matter how educated. Although the women because of the cultural and religious inhibitions may never admit to their sexual dysfunction.
From basic psychology; the sexual response cycle can be divided into 4 phases of functioning : desire, arousal , orgasm , and satisfaction . Sexual dysfunction in clinical practice follows this theoretical model including sexual pain disorders . Erectile dysfunction is a disorder of sexual arousal characterised by the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or to maintain an erection until completion of the sexual activity .
The dysfunction may occur as full erection occurs in the early stages of lovemaking but declines when intercourse is attempted . Erection does occur , but only when intercourse is not being considered or partial erection , insufficient for intercourse , without full erection . And for women ; there is the persistent inability to attain or sustain adequate lubrication response of sexual excitement significant enough to cause distress and interpersonal difficulty especially in a marital situation.
Couples or individuals who discover that they do not have optimum sexual satisfaction should seek medical advice since some medical conditions like diabetes , hypertension , some surgical conditions and certain medications can cause this dysfunction. Depressive illness presenting with reduced libido , antipsychotics , and some other drugs of abuse may cause erectile dysfunction.
However, strong cognitive and emotional factors may be responsible for the majority of cases . Until recently, clinicians used to consider performance anxiety to be responsible for the development and maintenance of life long and acquired erectile dysfunction. However, recent findings are showing that the cognitive processes interacting with anxiety are responsible for sexual dysfunction.
The challenge for the mental health expert is to elicit deep – seated psychological and relational barriers usually fed by faulty cultural and religious paradigms and defective communication patterns . The African man ’ s definition of manhood as sexual conquest of his partner readily makes him vulnerable to sexual dysfunction especially when his partner demands to be treated with respect rather than being conquered .
The quality of the couple’ s non – sexual relationship is examined such as conflicts emanating from work, finances , partner’ s health , and difficulties with parents and children . Partners could provide useful information that the client is concealing like bereavement , indebtedness, not getting a promotion or a son’ s drug problem . The goal of therapy is to assist couples to accept changes in their lives such as menopause , disability and other life stresses in the process of regaining their sexual function .
Copyright PUNCH .